In practice, the following training methods are used:
mechanical: a conditioned stimulus is reinforced by mechanical action. The team is combined with stroking, pressing with a hand on the sacrum, etc.
tasteful: team and reward (delicacy);
contrast: a combination of a conditioned stimulus with a mechanical and then food stimulus;
mimetic: based on the innate ability of animals to mimic the actions of another animal.
In the process of training, animals develop automatism in actions, but new skills, unlike inborn ones, are not so resistant and require constant training.
The entire process of dog training can conditionally be divided into three stages:
Testing the simplest action element. For example, on the command Aport! a dog is taught to take an object from the hands of a trainer with its teeth.
Complication of action. The dog is taught to bring a certain object thrown to the ground not far from the trainer.
The same actions, but performed under various conditions and in the presence of extraneous irritants.
The greatest effect is obtained with the complex use of conditioned and unconditioned reflexes. But it should be borne in mind that the force of excitation of an animal on an unconditioned stimulus should be higher than on a conditional one. The interval between stimuli must be made short, no more than 1-2 s. Repeat the action no earlier than 2-3 minutes. In total, carry out 15-20 exercises of the same type per day.
Use mechanical stimuli carefully, without causing pain to the animal. Otherwise, cause a negative reaction. Particular attention requires the use of conditioned stimuli. This is a large group of factors affecting the senses of the animal – sound signals, smells, gestures, facial expressions of a trainer, etc.
Teams are very important. They should be crisp, clear and monotonous. The dog distinguishes them not in meaning, but in combination and number of sounds, intonation. If the trainer changes the team according to one of these signs, the animal will not respond, in spite of any persuasion and threats. Therefore, words must be pronounced aggressively and confidently, in a voice of medium volume. It is advisable to reinforce orders with a treat.
Threatening intonation can be used only with open disobedience of the animal. In such cases, the command is given sharply and loudly and reinforced by mechanical action, for example, by a sharp jerk over the leash or a blow of the rod; they are accompanied by a verbal command of a prohibitive nature (It is impossible !, Fu!).
The role of odor irritants is great. As you know, the sense of smell in dogs is very well developed. Thanks to him, the animal recognizes people, objects, evaluates food, tracks down game. Possessing a wonderful smell memory, it can, on command, find an object or a living object according to a given smell (always specific due to the dispersion of the smallest particles flying away from objects when they move or from the movement of air).
The gestures of the trainer (owner) are one of the most important conditioned stimuli, acquiring special significance in the dog’s performance, when soundless control is necessary.
The development of the dog’s reaction to the gesture is achieved by combining verbal commands with hand movements at the beginning of training, and then a gradual transition to a clean team only with gestures. Basically, the animal indicates the direction of movement with his hands. Such commands are tough and always the same.
Of course, the trainer himself is the main irritant for the dog. The person who grows, educates and educates the ward from 2-3 months of age has a particularly strong effect on her. She gets used to his voice, smell, clothes, etc. And the owner, of course, is obliged to possess certain qualities – to be restrained, strict enough, but fair, not to get carried away by excessive affection and play, otherwise he will not be able to keep the pet in obedience.
Raising a puppy
Raising a dog from a very young age is the basis for further development and socialization. A dog that is “comfortable” in all respects will not cause trouble for you and others, which is especially important in urban conditions. The purpose of education is to instill in the animal the development of behavioral skills, to ensure the normal development of the nervous …
How to train a puppy in a place
How to train a puppy in a place
Each dog should have its own place in the house. It’s usually easy to train a puppy, but sometimes it takes patience. After the puppy eats, violent games usually begin, but after a short period of time the puppy begins to sleep. Try to …